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Chant – A – Mantra (1): A Reintroduction to the Wonderful Benefit of Chanting A Mantra!

Published Hulyo 5, 2016 by jptan2012

Today, I would like to start a new series about chanting mantras. I felt this is an important topic / series to write because a lot of my readers are hooked with getting amulets. I know that the Vajrapani Ruel enjoys a certain amount of popularity amongst my readers and it has garnered a lot of o personal testimonies attesting to its miraculous power and effectiveness. However, the sad truth is that the Vajrapani Ruel is quite pricey for a lot of people, and more than that it is also relatively quite limited in the sense that it is not forever that we can have it. Not to mention the difficulty in making it and smuggling it out of Tibet, which is under the Mainland Chinese (China) rule that doesn’t allow it to be made or be brought out. So if you have the Vajrapani Ruel, consider yourself to be very lucky.

But as I said, sometimes we are very caught up to having the Vajrapani Ruel that if can’t have it we sort of go into some sort of despair. That shouldn’t be the attitude because the truth is the Buddha Himself has given us enough tools to assist us in our daily life. We have the sutras and at the same times we have the mantras.

It was several years back since I first introduced the power of mantras to my readers, and I will not write about it again. If you are a new reader and is not familiar with the power of mantras, I suggest you revisit my old post about it entitled – MANTRA: THE INSTURMENT TO TAP THE POWER OF SYMBOLIC SOUND, SCRIPT, AND THOUGHT – to know more about it.

But what I would like to reiterate today is that chanting mantras, again like reciting the sutras, should be done comfortably loud. That is because of the same reasons that I have discussed in RECITE A SUTRA 6: WHY DO WE HAVE TO LOUDLY RECITE SUTRAS? However, more that the reason discussed in the preceding post, reciting it loudly also helps us get attuned with the Buddha or Bodhisattva whose mantra we are chanting.

Whenever we chant a mantra, it is like an offering to the Buddha or Bodhisattva whose mantra we are chanting, but at the same time it is also like a call for help and establishing a link or a ‘relationship’ with them.

mala

In chanting a mantra, it is best to be use a mala so that you can keep track of the number of times you’ve chanted a mantra.

Chanting a mantra can make wonders, and this blog has been testament to what are the powers of chanting a mantra can do. But now that I’m actively writing about it again, I hope to show you more of these wonderful miracles that simply chanting a mantra can do.

A lot of people are concern about properly pronouncing the mantra. I always say that they shouldn’t sweat it that much. Right pronunciation is important but it will come to you sooner or later, what is more important is the sincere heart in chanting the mantras. I suggest that you read the post entitled – A HERMIT AND A MONK: A LESSON IN RECITING YOUR MANTRA! – as to what Lama Zopa Rinpoche has to say about pronunciation of the mantras.

But what are the benefits of chanting a mantra:

  1. Protection.
  2. Wealth, financial, money blessings.
  3. Good health.
  4. Family luck and/or relationship luck.
  5. Happiness.
  6. Peace.
  7. Miracles will happen more frequently.

I also decided to write this series because the previous mantras that I have shared before are anchored on the Buddha or Bodhisattva, which is really the proper way to present a mantra. However, having a predominantly Christian reader, I felt this approach is not very effective in making you understand it. So I will present the mantras on a per need basis. And whenever possible I will still present stories, real personal testimonies of either readers or friends or families who have used the mantra. I will also present combination mantras for more effective and swifter results.

One last thing, simply chanting a mantra will have an effect, but remember, chanting it under deep meditative state give you the ultimate effectiveness.

For questions, comments, and suggestions please email sanaakosirickylee@gmail.com

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Improve Your Work Feng Shui with the Seed Syllables of Buddhism

Published Mayo 1, 2012 by jptan2012

In my past posts I talked about the different FENG SHUI TIPS FOR THE WORKPLACE (1 and 2), and about the different FENG SHUI TIPS FOR THE WORKING PERSON. Today, allow me to share how one can improve their Work or Career Feng Shui by using symbols use in Buddhism.

I personally use some of the things that I’m going to suggest here and I found them to be truly powerful that enables me to accomplish the things that I need to accomplish even those that I think are unachievable Furthermore, it helps maintain my ‘sanity’ and not give into pressure.

One of the most common and very powerful Buddhist symbols that I always use for my work is the Victory Banner. I’ve discussed about the Victory Banner before and I will not discuss about it here. If you want to know more about the Victory Banner please read the following posts – FENG SHUI TIPS FOR THE WORK PLACE (2) and THE VICTORY BANNER: A POWERFUL FENG SHUI TOOL FOR CAREER SUCCESS.

The other Buddhist tools that you can use to help you with your work are by tapping into the power of Mantras! I’ve wrote about mantras entitled – MANTRA: THE POWER TO TAP THE SYMBOLIC SOUND, SCRIPT, AND THOUGHT – please do read more about it for you to be able to understand more how they work. But also equally powerful with the mantras are the seed syllables.

Seed Syllables are basically shortened version of the mantras. However, they in itself are very powerful and create a different form or energy on its own. There are different kinds of seed syllables and I won’t be able to share them all here. However, there are different seed syllables that are works well for the different field of work or work environment.

The one that I use a lot is the seed syllable HRIH. It’s a wonderful amulet for those who are in marketing and public relations (like me); it’s also very good for those who are in advertising, legal profession (lawyer, judge, police), sales, journalism. The seed syllable HRIH has the ability to ensure that it wearer will have the ability to overcome any hostile and emotionally stressful environment.

Another powerful seed syllable is BAM. It’s a seed syllable that is good in protecting people who deal with nature or environment a lot. It has the power to block off negative energies brought about by the beings in the third dimension. It is also a powerful tool against unintentional evil eye brought about by envious and jealous people. Therefore it’s a good charm for people who hold powerful position. It’s also very good for those who’s work involve the environment like – rigging, mining, quarrying, even construction, environmental scientist, agriculture, aquaculture, etc.

Next is HUM. HUM is one of the most common syllable, which can be found in a number of powerful mantras like OM MANI PADME HUM or OM PADMO UNSHNISHA VIMALE HUM PHAT or OM VAJRASATTVA HUM. HUM is a very powerful seed syllable of protection. People whose job involve a lot of traveling or involve some delicate situation will benefit from this seed syllable. If you’re a pilot, a captain of a ship, a flight and ship steward, traveling sales agent, military, tour guide, you’ll benefit a lot from this seed syllable.

Though not exactly a seed syllable but more of a mantra, I would like to include OM AH HUM here. The mantra OM AH HUM has the power to clear our your surroundings from negative chi, so if you work in a hospital, morgue, cemetery, it is advisable for you to wear the symbolic script of the mantra OM AH HUM.

HOW DO YOU WEAR THE SAID SYLLABLES?

You can buy it as a jewelry or you can simply print a copy, enclose it a case and carry it with you.

A Calm Mind

Published Marso 7, 2012 by jptan2012

The idea to write about this again came from a reader who a few weeks ago contacted me to request for the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT.

J mentioned in one of his emails that he’s just starting to understand more about the Buddha Dharma. A few days ago, he wrote another email inquiring as to whether there are mantras that he can recite for him to be calm and for him to have peace of mind.

A calm mind and peace of mind are two different things. The latter is usually achieved one’s we have come to terms with our past deeds and mistakes, it is also achieved one’s we have attained a calm mind. It’s a struggle. Having a calm mind is a precedent for a peaceful mind.

Since a calm mind precedes a peaceful mind, that it what I’m going to discuss now.

The first thing that you have to acknowledge is that it takes practice to have a calm mind. You work on it, it’s not something that you simply hope for and voila it happens right away. You have to constantly remind yourself that you want to be calm, that you NEED to be calm.

I, myself, had to struggle to achieve a calmness that I really need. I used to be a very hot headed person, not only that, since I was young my mind has always been hyperactive, I would constantly think about how things would go wrong, how people are doing me bad, I always think that all good things are done with malice and hidden motives. Because of this, I do get into trouble a lot of times. I was pretty violent and pretty harsh with my words and deeds; this kind of behavior is destructive not only to the people around me but also to myself.

There were a few times that I wanted to see a therapist to help me with my hyperactive and malicious mind. However, when I delve into Buddhism deeply, I found myself becoming calmer. I still do have those burst of emotions and hyperactivity, but I can honestly say that I’m now calmer and is able to control myself better. I also don’t really think a lot of negative thoughts and my being a worrier has subsided.

I won’t be able to pinpoint in on a single thing that helped me to be more calm, rather the change, which was gradual, is brought about different things that all worked together in helping me to have a calm mind.

First, understanding more about Buddhism has really helped. It helps that I understand that every action, every thought, every word has an effect. It creates karma, and whether that karma is good or bad depends on your deeds, words, and thoughts. The idea that reward and punishment is directly proportionate to your own deeds, thoughts, and words helped me to be more cautious and level headed.

Second, images of the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Deities, Immortals also helped in constantly reminding me that I can always call on their assistance for me to achieve the calmness that I need. They had become a constant point of meditation for me.

Another very effective tool is reciting the mantras. All the mantras will definitely have a calming effect. However, to be specific in the purpose of the calmness of the mind the PRAJNAPARAMITA MANTRA, the MANTRA OF THE MASTER OF HEALING, more popularly known as the MEDICINE BUDDHA MANTRA are the two mantras that works well with trying to calm the mind. The Prajnaparamita Mantra is – TADYATHA OM GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SOHA. It really is just GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SOHA, however, when reciting it one needs to add TADYATHA OM. The Medicine Buddha Mantra is – TADYATHA OM BHEKANDZYE BHEKANDZYE MAHA BHEKANDZYE BHEKANDZYE RADZA SAMUGATE SOHA.

Reading the various SUTRAS are also very helpful in trying to achieve a calmness of the mind. This is not only because at the point of reading you try your best to concentrate on the teaching, but more importantly, the Sutras really has such an effect.

Wearing a PRAYER WHEEL is also a very powerful tool to help achieve a calmness of the mind that we all need. If you want to know more about the Prayer Wheel do read my post – THE POWER OF A PRAYER WHEEL.

In my pursuit to have a calmer mind, I also decided to never watch horror movies because I find that the chi in creating a horror movie and watching them is so bad that it disturbs a person. It doesn’t matter whether you get scared or not, just watching it is enough to affect you in some way.

Wearing the image of the Medicine Buddha or the symbolic script of the Medicine Buddha Mantra as pendant also has a calming effect. I’ve previously discussed in length about the Medicine Buddha and about the power of the mantra. If you want to know more about them please read my post entitled – MEDICINE BUDDHA: A HEALER, PROVIDER, AND PROTECTOR OF BOTH THE PHYSICAL AND SPIRITUAL REALM – and – MANTRA: THE INSTRUMENT TO TAP THE POWER OF SYMBOLIC SOUND, SCRIPT, AND THOUGHT – respectively.

The WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA'S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT has the image of the Medicine Buddha on the front and the Medicine Buddha Mantra symbolic script at the back.

These are just some of the tools that we can use to help us have a calmer mind. There are other ways to achieve a calm mind, however, this would require seeing one’s BAZI and Feng Shui of the house. Thus, I’m unable to discuss it here.

But more than anything, the first step to a calm mind is the decision to make it happen.

Receive Showers of Blessings by Tapping Two of the Most Powerful Mantras!

Published Pebrero 18, 2012 by jptan2012

A little over a month ago, I wrote about the power of mantras in a post entitled MANTRA: THE INSTRUMENT TO TAP THE POWER OF SYMBOLIC SCRIPT, SOUND, AND THOUGHT. In that particular post I discussed what is mantra and how it works.

Today, I would like to share with you on how you can receive showers of blessings by tapping two of the most powerful mantras. I’ve mentioned about these mantras in that particular post but I want to talk about it again and share with you some stories about people who had benefitted from these mantras.

The symbolic Script of the Wish Fulfilling Mantra

The mantra I’m talking about are the WISH-GRANTING WHEEL MANTRA more popularly known as the WISH FULFILLING MANTRA – OM PADMO USHNISHA VIMALE HUM PHAT and the NEGATIVE KARMA CLEANSING MANTRA – OM HANU PHASHA (sometimes spelled as PASHA) BHARA HE YE SO HA.

Symbolic Script of the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra – OM HANU PASHA BHARA HE YE SOHA

The Wish Fulfilling Mantra and the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra are two of the most powerful mantras given to us by the Buddhas themselves. They are equally as powerful as the Mantra of the Buddha of Compassion, Kuan Yin or Avalokitesvara – OM MANI PADME HUM, or the Mantra of the Medicine Buddha – TADYATHA OM BHEKANDZYE BHEKANDZYE MAHA BHEKANDZYE BHEKANDZYE RADZA SAMUGATE SOHA.

Let me discuss first the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra OM HANU PASHA BHARA HE YE SOHA. Sometimes, you’ll find that some of the things that we long for are always ‘within reach’ but some thing will always happen that will prevent us from getting it. For example, wealth loss through a business project gone bad, or career advancement with higher pay that went to somebody else, or wealth that was swindled away from us, etc. The truth is sometimes this is cause by our negative karma who may be blocking some of the positive chi. Reciting the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra will help unblock these blockages and make us more open to receiving luck or blessings.

A friend’s father has been working really hard for the biggest project of his career life. By closing the said deal would be akin to winning the lottery and after about a year, he did close the deal and a few more months after he got the money, but after about 2 weeks he had a stroke! The prognosis of the doctor is really bad and they were told that his father would not be able to walk or move on his own again. Clearly, he won’t be able to enjoy the fruits of his hard work.

My friend called me to ask me whether his father’s BAZI or Paht Chee analysis will be able to shed some light as to why this happened. I worked on his father’s BAZI and saw that he is in a particular stage of his life wherein he would have enjoyed financial wealth, however, it also indicated that he is at a critical stage of his life. The BAZI as I read it didn’t indicate death, neither did it indicate health problem; all I can discern with the analysis is that he is at this critical stage. Naturally, because of what he is going through, I would have to just assume that the ‘critical’ stage refers to his medical condition. This means also that it could only be because of a strong karmic influence. Whether past life or not I’m not sure.

I explained this to my friend and he requested whether Feng Shui could do anything to help the condition of his father. I told him to use some Feng Shui cures but told him that since this may be karmic, it may be beyond ‘traditional’ Feng Shui, this should be inner or spiritual Feng Shui. His family is Catholic but out of desperation they were willing to try Spiritual Feng Shui.

Told him to recite for his father one full mala of the MEDICINE BUDDHA MANTRA. He should do it aloud so his father can hear him and he should do this five times a day. But more than, I explained, since there is a strong indication that whatever happened to his father is karmic he should also recite the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra five times a day. Preferably, he should do this after he has finished reciting the Medicine Buddha Mantra and like the Medicine Buddha Mantra he should recite the mantra loud enough for his father to hear him.

After about 3 weeks of reciting the Medicine Buddha Mantra and the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra his father started recovering from his stroke. A few more weeks after he was already strong enough to recite the mantras on his own.

At present, his father is again almost back to his old self and in fact has been working again. To this day he continues to recite both mantras and although he didn’t convert to Buddhism he has invited the image of the Medicine Buddha into his home.

The reason that it was also important for him to recite the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra is because obviously his bad karma prevented him from enjoying a wealth luck that is clearly present as indicated by his BAZI analysis. While reciting the Medicine Buddha Mantra will definitely aid him on his recovery, some of the Medicine Buddha’s blessing earned by the merit of the symbolic sound created by reciting his mantra, it may not be as quick because his own negative karma may block these blessings as it has blocked him from enjoying the wealth luck that he received.

The other mantra mentioned earlier is the Wish-Granting Wheel Mantra or, as I said, more popularly called as the Wish Fulfilling Mantra.

The Wish Fulfilling Mantra is a very powerful mantra, which grants us the blessing of receiving the things that we wish for. In fact, the mantra itself is so powerful that simply knowing it is already a blessing.

A Singaporean friend whose cousin greatly benefitted from the Wish Fulfilling Mantra shared this story that I’m about to share with you. For the purpose of this blog, lets just call her M. M is a 28 years old, Singaporean Chinese, who works as a junior marketing officer of an international company in Singapore. She has been with her company for barely a year when their mother company in London had an opening for a higher position with international scope and naturally with a higher pay. M has always dreamed of migrating to US or UK, that’s precisely why she joined this particular company. However, she also knows that she is still considered as ‘neophyte’ in the said company, she’s just a Junior Marketing Officer, and Sing told her cousin that there’s a Senior Marketing Officer, then a Junior Marketing Manager, then a Senior Marketing Manager, then the Sales and Marketing Director. Apparently, the search for the new position in London is not just in Singapore but also in other countries where the company is present, and they are present in all South East Asian countries, the Asia Pacific region, and also in America, as well as some parts of Europe! The competition is tough! Furthermore, junior and senior marketing officers are not even considered for the position.

M felt and knew that she doesn’t stand a chance and shared this with her mom who in turned shared this with a Tibetan Buddhist monk. The Tibetan Buddhist monk told M’s mom to let M try reciting the Wish Fulfilling Mantra. The instruction is for M to recite 7 full mala of the mantra for 3 days. On the fourth day she can try and send her application with her letter of intent. After which she is to recite 3 full mala for the mantra everyday. M felt that there’s nothing to lose in trying so she heeded the monk’s advice.

To make the long story short M is now in London not for the position that was vacated but when they saw her application they saw another position that fits her. They weren’t really just looking for a ‘local’ to fill in the position but somehow they were impressed with M’s resume that the company for the first time in its history hired an Asian for the said position!

Isn’t that wonderful? From a simple wish with zero possibility to a wish fulfilled!

There are other stories that was shared to me or that I personally experienced about these 2 powerful mantras, but I suggest that the best testimonial would be your own experience.

How does one tap into the blessings of these 2 powerful mantras? Why do they usually go together?

The Wish Fulfilling Mantra always goes with the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra because their effects may be complimentary. As shared with you earlier regarding my friend’s father, the Medicine Buddha mantra might not be as effective if his own negative karma is blocking the said blessing, in the same manner, while tapping into the power of the Wish Fulfilling Mantra it is better to make sure that we continuously cleanse ourselves by the negative karma that we accumulate by also tapping into the blessing of the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra and we do this by reciting the mantra.

I usually say 1 full mala of the Wish Fulfilling Mantra followed by another full mala of the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra once a week. If I have a specific wish I recite them more than once a week.

Furthermore, you can also say the Wish Fulfilling Mantra 7 times and blow on some incense. Once the incense is lighted, its smoke will bring blessing to other beings ‘touched’ by the smoke of the incense. Say the Wish Fulfilling Mantra 7 times and blow on your clothes it blesses you.

If you put the symbolic script of the Wish Fulfilling Mantra and the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra above doorways or your door will bless and cleanse all the people who passes underneath them. That’s how powerful these two mantras are.

According to Lama Zopa Rinpoche, who perhaps the most famous Tibetan Buddhist monk next to the His Holiness The Dalai Lama and His Holiness the Karmapa, simply seeing the symbolic script of these 2 mantras will greatly benefit us even if you’re not conscious of it.  To know more about symbolic scripts you can read my previous post called MANTRA: THE INSTRUMENT TO TAP THE POWER OF SYMBOLIC SCRIPT, SOUND, AND THOUGHT.

Also according to Lama Zopa Rinpoche wearing the symbolic script of the WISH FULFILLING MANTRA and NEGATIVE KARMA CLEANSING MANTRA as a sacred jewelry will enable us to continuously tap into the blessings of the said mantras. This is precisely why I’ve decided and made sure that both mantras are included in the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT.

I’ve just written about the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT yesterday and I’ve already received 7 requests from people from 4 countries who want to get the pendant for themselves. I’ve made this pendant more affordable by making it smaller. Its diameter is only about ¾ of an inch. Unfortunately, I’m not taking any ‘special orders’ right now because I’m still waiting for the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT of my family, relatives, and friends. Please understand that selling Feng Shui charms such as the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT and the WEALTH AND MASTER PROTECTION PENDANT are only incidental and is not a means of living. Nevertheless, please feel free to email me if you’re interested to get the pendant, no promises, but I’ll try to request my jeweler to make one for you after all the other orders has been served. You can also just copy the design and have your jeweler make one for you.

If you want you can also get the Mantra Ring design by Lillian Too. It has the Wish Fulfilling Mantra and the Negative Karma Cleansing Mantra, but it does not have the Medicine Buddha Mantra, Seed Syllable of Green Tara – Tam (a short version of the mantra OM TARE TUTTARE TURE SOHA), image of Kuan Kong, Medicine Buddha, and Yellow Dzambhala. However, you can get them separately.

NOTE: I’m now able to serve request of readers to avail of the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT. You can also read a reader’s personal testimony about the pendant by clicking here. She had her wish fulfilled right after she wore the pendant.

If you wish to know more about the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT, you can read the following posts:

The WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT is a pendant I design for my and my family’s personal use. However, when I posted it here on my blog, people started requesting for it and since then there has been a tremendous amount of testimonials about how it brought some wonderful blessings to the people who wears it. Some of the testimonies are outright miraculous, while some has a gradual experience of changed in their life. If you wish to know more about the WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT please read the following posts…

FULFILL YOUR WISHES AND GET BLESSINGS FROM THE BUDDHAS WITH THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT.

WISH FULFILLED WITH THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT’ – A PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER.

ANOTHER WISH FULFILLED WITH THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT”.

A PROPHETIC DREAM, THE WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT, AND A WONDERFUL BLESSING.

WINNING THE ELECTIONS AND A NEW BUSINESS: ANOTHER PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER ABOUT THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT”.

A MOTHER GAMBLED ON THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT’ FOR HER SON – A PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER

WINNING THE LOTTERY AND COMING HOME. DREAMS FULFILLED BY THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT’ – ANOTHER PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER

WISHES FULFILLED WITH THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT’ AND A BIG BUSINESS BREAK WITH ‘WEALTH AND MASTER PROTECTION PENDANT’ – PERSONAL TESTIMONIES OF READERS

A FINANCIALLY REWARDING JOB, A FATHER’S FORGIVENESS, AN EX-BOYFRIEND WHO ASKED FOR A SECOND CHANCE BECAUSE OF THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT’ – ANOTHER PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER

SAVED FROM TYPHOON YOLANDA’S WRATH THROUGH THE WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT: ANOTHER PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER

ONE AFTER THE OTHER TV AND MOVIE PROJECTS AND A SUCCESSFUL RESTAURANT BUSINESS ATTRIBUTED TO THE ‘WISH FULFILLING AND BUDDHA’S BLESSING MANTRA PENDANT’: ANOTHER PERSONAL TESTIMONY OF A READER WHO HAPPENS TO BE AN ACTOR

This post was updated on Dec. 1, 2013.

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